Calixarene/Nafion-modified bismuth-film electrodes for adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of lead

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This paper presents an enhanced adsorptive stripping voltammetric procedure (AdSV) for the determination of Pb2+, which relies on the accumulation of the metals at a calixarene-based chemically modified bismuth-film electrode on glassy carbon substrate. Following the accumulation of the target metals at open circuit and a medium exchange, both the square wave anodic stripping detection of the metal ions and the in situ bismuth-film formation was performed simultaneously in a Bi3+ containing supporting electrolyte. The analysis of Pb2+ under optimized conditions resulted in stripping responses with good linearity (in the range 0.05-0.6 μM) and precision (RSD 1.12% at 0.2 μM Pb2+; n=10) and low detection limit (0.02 μg/L at 10 min preconcentration). The determination of Pb2+ (0.4 μM) at 100-fold excess of interfering ions (Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) yielded well resolved lead signal. The analytical utility of the method elaborated was tested in the analysis of trace Pb2+ in environmental water samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1961-1969
Number of pages9
Issue number17-18
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2009



  • Adsorptive stripping voltammetry
  • Bismuth
  • Bismuth-film electrode
  • Calix[4]arene thioamide ligand
  • Chemically modified electrode
  • Osteryoung square wave anodic stripping voltammetry
  • Voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry

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