C3 and C4 grasses of Hungary: environmental requirements, phenology and role in the vegetation

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C3 species dominate the grass flora; they are mainly perennials and occupy a great variety of habitats. Only 14.4% of the 174 grass species are of C4 types, which are mostly annuals on disturbed land. The few non-weedy species inhabit saline areas or calcareous grasslands. There is a temporal displacement in the phenology of grasses with different fixation pathways; the C4 species growing in the hot and dry summer period, while the C3 species have the maximal activity earlier, in May and June. The use of Ellenberg's ecological indicator values showed C4 species to occupy habitats with higher temperature than that of the habitat of C3 grasses, but no difference was found in the moisture requirements. The reported higher efficiency of nitrogen use in the C4 pathway has not resulted in a preference of C4 grasses for habitats poor in nitrogen. -from Author

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-88
Number of pages6
JournalAbstracta Botanica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1991


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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