The authors have drawn attention to a rare disease called infant botulism, which raises some difficulties with regard to differential diagnosis. In the case of the six-month-old infant portrayed, infant botulism and food-born botulism appeared together. As a result of the severity of the disease and due to its rapid course observed in the presented case as well, the diagnosis has to be raised relying on the accurate patient's history and on the clinical examination, then it should be confirmed by appropriate examinations. In relation to presenting a case, the authors examine the microbiological background of the disease, its symptomatology, its epidemiological characteristics, the appropriate methods of electrophysiological examination and laboratory analysis as recommended in current literature, together with the difficulties that arise in differential diagnosis and also the possibilities of treatment. They pay special attention to the particular characteristics of the infant form of the disease, to the difficulties of making a diagnosis due to the characteristics of the age group and also to the questions in relation to the guiding principles of therapy. The rapid and fatal process observed in the presented case warns us that serious complications can occur even when up-to-date therapy is used. Therefore, despite the improvement in prognosis we have to strive to prevent the disease by spreading the proper regulations of nutritional hygiene.
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