Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points

Luis Gracia-Marco, Luis A. Moreno, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Francisco B. Ortega, Augusto César Ferreira de Moraes, Frederic Gottrand, Romana Roccaldo, Ascensión Marcos, Sonia Gómez-Martínez, Jean Dallongeville, Anthony Kafatos, Denes Molnar, Gloria Bueno, Stefaan de Henauw, Kurt Widhalm, Jonathan C. Wells

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aims of the present study in adolescents were 1) to examine how various body composition-screening tests relate to single and clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, 2) to examine how lean mass and body fatness (independently of each other) relate to clustered CVD risk factors, and 3) to calculate specific thresholds for body composition indices associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk. We measured 1089 European adolescents (46.7% boys, 12.5-17.49 years) in 2006-2007. CVD risk factors included: systolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen uptake, homeostasis model assessment, C-reactive protein (n = 748), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Body composition indices included: height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, the sum of four skinfolds, central/peripheral skinfolds, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Most body composition indices are associated with single CVD risk factors. The sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are strong and positively associated with clustered CVD risk. Interestingly, lean mass is positively associated with clustered CVD risk independently of body fatness in girls. Moderate and highly accurate thresholds for the sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk (all AUC > 0.773). In conclusion, our results support an association between most of the assessed body composition indices and single and clustered CVD risk factors. In addition, lean mass (independent of body fatness) is positively associated with clustered CVD risk in girls, which is a novel finding that helps to understand why an index such as BMI is a good index of CVD risk but a bad index of adiposity. Moderate to highly accurate thresholds for body composition indices associated with a healthier clustered CVD risk were found. Further studies with a longitudinal design are needed to confirm these findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-564
Number of pages10
JournalProgress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Volume58
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • C-reactive protein
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Fat mass
  • Fitness
  • Lean mass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Gracia-Marco, L., Moreno, L. A., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., de Moraes, A. C. F., Gottrand, F., Roccaldo, R., Marcos, A., Gómez-Martínez, S., Dallongeville, J., Kafatos, A., Molnar, D., Bueno, G., de Henauw, S., Widhalm, K., & Wells, J. C. (2016). Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 58(5), 555-564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2015.11.002