Black crusts on travertine: Factors controlling development and stability

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The travertine buildings of Budapest show extensive black crust formation, which is related to high concentration of atmospheric pollution and a continental climate. Laminar black crusts, framboidal black crusts and leached white surfaces are compared. Physical properties (Schmidt hammer rebound, Duroscope rebound), mineralogical composition and elemental composition are measured. Framboidal black crusts contain more than 50% of acicular gypsum. The crust surface displays idiomorphic rosette-like gypsum crystals with particulates, calcite and gypsum crystal aggregates. The sulphur isotopic composition of the black crusts pinpoints the involvement of rain and dust in crust formation. Thick framboidal black crust has the lowest strength while thin laminar black crust and white dissolved surfaces show minor decrease in surface strength compared to unaltered travertine. The crusts adhere to the travertine surface and rarely show mechanical decay forms that are typical features of porous limestone ashlars in Budapest.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-594
Number of pages12
JournalEnvironmental Geology
Volume56
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2008

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travertine
Calcium Sulfate
crust
Gypsum
gypsum
Calcium Carbonate
crystals
Chemical analysis
Crystals
Hammers
Calcite
calcite
Limestone
Sulfur
dust
limestone
Rain
Dust
physical properties
sulfur

Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Gypsum
  • Schmidt hammer
  • Travertine
  • Weathering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science

Cite this

Black crusts on travertine : Factors controlling development and stability. / Török, A.

In: Environmental Geology, Vol. 56, No. 3-4, 12.2008, p. 583-594.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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