Biomarkers in urachal cancer and adenocarcinomas in the bladder: A comprehensive review supplemented by own data

Henning Reis, Ulrich Krafft, Christian Niedworok, Orsolya Módos, Thomas Herold, Mark Behrendt, Hikmat Al-Ahmadie, Boris Hadaschik, Peter Nyirady, Tibor Szarvas

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Abstract

Urachal cancer (UrC) is a rare but aggressive cancer. Due to overlapping histomorphology, discrimination of urachal from primary bladder adenocarcinomas (PBAC) and adenocarcinomas secondarily involving the bladder (particularly colorectal adenocarcinomas, CRC) can be challenging. Therefore, we aimed to give an overview of helpful (immunohistochemical) biomarkers and clinicopathological factors in addition to survival analyses and included institutional data from 12 urachal adenocarcinomas. A PubMed search yielded 319 suitable studies since 1930 in the English literature with 1984 cases of UrC including 1834 adenocarcinomas (92%) and 150 nonadenocarcinomas (8%). UrC was more common in men (63%), showed a median age at diagnosis of 50.8 years and a median tumor size of 6.0 cm. No associations were noted for overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) and clinicopathological factors beside a favorable PFS in male patients (p = 0 047). The immunohistochemical markers found to be potentially helpful in the differential diagnostic situation are AMACR and CK34βE12 (UrC versus CRC and PBAC), CK7, β-Catenin and CD15 (UrC and PBAC versus CRC), and CEA and GATA3 (UrC and CRC versus PBAC). Serum markers like CEA, CA19-9 and CA125 might additionally be useful in the follow-up and monitoring of UrC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7308168
JournalDisease markers
Volume2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

Reis, H., Krafft, U., Niedworok, C., Módos, O., Herold, T., Behrendt, M., Al-Ahmadie, H., Hadaschik, B., Nyirady, P., & Szarvas, T. (2018). Biomarkers in urachal cancer and adenocarcinomas in the bladder: A comprehensive review supplemented by own data. Disease markers, 2018, [7308168]. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7308168