Availability of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, zinc, and manganese in the plant-soil system of integrated and organic apple orchards

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10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Plant nutrient applications have received much interest in integrated and organic apple-growing systems. Several environmental aspects of natural and artificial fertilization have been studied, but the availability and seasonal changes of some nutrients are still not clearly understood in integrated and organic apple orchards. In a 3-year study, we aimed to determine calcium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, zinc, and manganese contents of soil and temporal dynamics of these elements in leaves in integrated and organic apple orchards (eastern Hungary) on three apple cultivars (Jonagold, Egri Piros, and Remo). The amount of nutrients was higher in the integrated orchard compared to the organic one; however, the temporal dynamics of nutrients followed a similar pattern in all cultivars and both orchards. The calcium and magnesium contents of leaves increased continuously until July and June, respectively; after that, the increase was not considerable. A continuous decrease was observed in the sulfur content of apple leaves until August; then the decrease was not considerable. The dynamics of copper uptake was the highest in April, and then copper content of leaves decreased by more than 50%. Zinc content was the most stable during the seasons. Its amount decreased toward June, and then it began to increase until August or September. A continuous increase was registered in the manganese content of apple leaves until June; then it dropped slightly at the end of an intensive shoot-growing period (mid-July). It increased again from August to September. In sum, although seasonal patterns of the nutrients were similar in both growing systems, availabilities of these nutrients were always more stable in the integrated orchard than in the organic one.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)682-693
Number of pages12
JournalCommunications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Volume40
Issue number1-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2009

Keywords

  • Apple
  • Calcium
  • Copper
  • Integrated
  • Leaf
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Micronutrient
  • Organic
  • Soil
  • Sulfur
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Soil Science

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