The autonomic nervous system has an important and crucial role in the genesis, maintenance and abruption of atrial fibrillation. The substrate and trigger mechanism of atrial fibrillation can be influenced by the changing of autonomic tone. The authors summarize the current knowledge on the relationship between autonomic nervous system and atrial fibrillation. The special neuroanatomical status and the role of autonomic reflexes and baroreflex gain in the initiation, maintenance, and termination of this aritmia are reviewed. Furthermore, the mechanism and consequences of autonomic effect of the curative radiofrequency catheter ablation of pulmonary vein with atrial vagal neuroablation are discussed. In the end we essay to summarize the pharmacologic therapy of atrial fibrillation. Classification of atrial fibrillation as of either the vagal or adrenergic form has only limited impact on management nowadays.
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