Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: The European Male Ageing Study

David M. Lee, Abdelouahid Tajar, Stephen R. Pye, Steven Boonen, Dirk Vanderschueren, Roger Bouillon, Terence W. O'Neill, Gyorgy Bartfai, Felipe F. Casanueva, Joseph D. Finn, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Thang S. Han, Ilpo T. Huhtaniemi, Krzysztof Kula, Michael E.J. Lean, Neil Pendleton, Margus Punab, Frederick C.W. Wu, Luisa PetroneGiovanni Corona, Herman Borghs, Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer, Renata Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Alan Silman, Philip Steer, Mary Lage, Ana I. Castro, Imre Földesi, Imre Fejes, Paul Korrovitz, Min Jiang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

115 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Interrelationships between hormones of the hypothalamic- pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis, hypogonadism, vitamin D and seasonality remain poorly defined. We investigated whether HPT axis hormones and hypogonadism are associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in men. Design and methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years in eight European centres. Testosterone (T), oestradiol (E 2) and dihydrotestosterone were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; LH, FSH, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone by immunoassay. Free T was calculated from total T, SHBG and albumin. Gonadal status was categorised as eugonadal (normal T/LH), secondary (low T, low/normal LH), primary (low T, elevated LH) and compensated (normal T, elevated LH) hypogonadism. Associations of HPT axis hormones with 25(OH)D were examined using linear regression and hypogonadism with vitamin D using multinomial logistic regression. Results: In univariate analyses, free T levels were lower (P=0.02) and E 2 and LH levels were higher (P<0.05) in men with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free T and negatively with E 2 and LH in age- and centre-adjusted linear regressions. After adjusting for health and lifestyle factors, no significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and individual hormones of the HPT axis. However, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with compensated (relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.52, P=0.03) and secondary hypogonadism (RRR=1.16, P=0.05). Seasonal variation was only observed for 25(OH)D (P<0.001). Conclusions: Secondary and compensated hypogonadism were associated with vitamin D deficiency and the clinical significance of this relationship warrants further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-85
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean journal of endocrinology
Volume166
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

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    Lee, D. M., Tajar, A., Pye, S. R., Boonen, S., Vanderschueren, D., Bouillon, R., O'Neill, T. W., Bartfai, G., Casanueva, F. F., Finn, J. D., Forti, G., Giwercman, A., Han, T. S., Huhtaniemi, I. T., Kula, K., Lean, M. E. J., Pendleton, N., Punab, M., Wu, F. C. W., ... Jiang, M. (2012). Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: The European Male Ageing Study. European journal of endocrinology, 166(1), 77-85. https://doi.org/10.1530/EJE-11-0743