Biomarkers in cancer prevention are increasingly important tools in primary prevention and in intervention by chemopreventive agents. Biomarkers can be utilized as indicators of exposures, effects and individual susceptibility to cancer. Sampling of biomarkers in relation to exposure may have a great impact on the reliability of mechanism of action. The recent developments in genomics provides us with an opportunity to investigate simultaneously numerous oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, phenotypic changes in proteins and to utilize the same samples for better understanding of possible ways to perturb carcinogenesis. Identification of high cancer risk biomarkers is possible also by traditional molecular genetics techniques. Chromosomal studies are based on peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cultures, which may present mutation as a cytogenetic change on chromosome structures. International databases are available for evaluation of high cancer risk among those people who are carrying high incidence of chromosomal aberrations. The biomarkers are suitable to indicate the need for intervention in high risk groups. In those cases, where removal of environmental hazards are not efficient enough in preventive measures since genetic damages are irreversible, it may be possible to introduce chemoprevention at the same time, which includes changes in lifestyle, smoking and drinking habits as well as prescription of vitamins, antioxidants, minerals etc. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on biomarkers indicative of high risk groups and/or individual susceptibility measured by different methodologies, mainly based on Hungarian human genotoxicological monitoring studies, which may help to understand the use of biomarkers in everyday medical practice.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 9 2006|
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