Apo-14´-carotenoic acid is a novel endogenous and bioactive apo-carotenoid

Gamze Aydemir, Marta Domínguez, Angel R. De Lera, Johanna Mihaly, Dániel Törőcsik, Ralph Rühl

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Carotenoids can be metabolized to various apo-carotenoids and retinoids. Apo-15´-carotenoic acid (retinoic acid, RA) is a potent activator of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in its all-trans- (ATRA) and 9-cis- (9CRA) forms. In this study we show firstly, that apo-14´-carotenoic acid (A14CA), besides retinoic acids, is present endogenously and with increased levels in the human organism after carrot juice supplementation rich in β-carotene. All-trans-A14C (ATA14CA) is just a moderate activator of RAR-transactivation in reporter cell lines but can potently activate retinoic acid response element (RARE)-mediated signalling in DR5/RARE-reporter mice and potently increase retinoid-reporter target gene expression in ATA14CA-supplemented mice and treated MM6 cells. Further metabolism to all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (ATDHRA) may be the key for its potent effects on retinoid target gene activation in ATA14CA-treated MM6 cells and in liver of supplemented mice. We conclude that besides RAs, there are alternative ways to activate RAR-response pathways in the mammalian organism. ATA14CA alone and in combination with its metabolite ATDHRA may be an alternative pathway for potent RAR-mediated signalling. View Full-Text

Original languageEnglish
Article number2084
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019


  • Apo-carotenoids
  • Carotene
  • Retinoic acid
  • Vitamin A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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    Aydemir, G., Domínguez, M., De Lera, A. R., Mihaly, J., Törőcsik, D., & Rühl, R. (2019). Apo-14´-carotenoic acid is a novel endogenous and bioactive apo-carotenoid. Nutrients, 11(9), [2084]. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092084