Antinociceptive interactions of triple and quadruple combinations of endogenous ligands at the spinal level

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10 Citations (Scopus)


A very interesting and rapidly developing field of pain research is related to the roles of different endogenous ligands. This study determined the antinociceptive interactions of triple and quadruple combinations of different endogenous ligands (endomorphin-1, adenosine, agmatine and kynurenic acid) on carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain model at the spinal level. Intrathecal infusion (60 min) of these drugs alone, in double, triple or quadruple combinations, was followed by a 60-min observation period. During the infusion, antihyperalgesic effect of 0.3 μg/min endomorphin-1 was higher in the triple combinations than those in the double combinations. After cessation of drug administration, only the combination of 0.3 μg/min endomorphin-1, 1 μg/min agmatine, and 0.3 μg/min adenosine was more effective than the double combinations. In quadruple combinations, the antinociceptive effects of both 0.1 and 0.3 μg/min endomorphin-1 were significantly potentiated by the otherwise ineffective triple combination of adenosine, agmatine, and kynurenic acid. No side effects could be observed at these doses. These results demonstrate that triple and quadruple combinations of these endogenous ligands caused more effective antihyperalgesia compared with double combinations. Accordingly, the doses of these substances could be further reduced, thus, reinforcing the view that complex activation and/or inhibition of different systems can be sufficiently effective in blocking nociception without adverse effects. Because all of these drugs had effects on various receptors and systems, the possible types of these interactions were discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)42-48
Number of pages7
JournalBrain research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 25 2007


  • Adenosine
  • Agmatine
  • Endomorphin
  • Kynurenic acid
  • NMDA receptor
  • α-adrenoceptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology

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