Antibiotic use in ambulatory care in Europe (ESAC data 1997-2002): Trends, regional differences and seasonal fluctuations

Monique M. Elseviers, Matus Ferech, Robert H. Vander Stichele, Herman Goossens, Helmut Mittermayer, Sigrid Metz, Boyka Markova, Arjana Andrasevic, Igor Francetic, Despo Bagatzouni, Jiri Vlcek, Dominique L. Monnet, Annemette Anker Nielsen, Ly Rootslane, Pentti Huovinen, Pirkko Paakkari, Philippe Cavalié, Didier Guillemot, Winfried Kern, Helmut SchroederHelen Giamarellou, Anastasia Antoniadou, G. Ternák, Karl Kristinsson, Robert Cunney, Ajay Oza, Raul Raz, Giuseppe Cornaglia, Sandra Berzina, Rolanda Valenteliene, Robert Hemmer, Marcel Bruch, Michael Borg, Peter Zarb, Robert Janknegt, Margreet Filius, Hege Salvesen Blix, Waleria Hryniewicz, Pawel Grzesiowski, Luis Caldeira, Irina Codita, Leonid Stratchounski, Svetlana Ratchina, Viliam Foltan, Tomas Tesar, Milan Cizman, José Campos, Otto Cars, Gunilla Skoog, Sigvard Mölstad, Giuliano Masiero, Serhat Unal, Peter Davey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The ESAC project (European Study on Antibiotic Consumption) aims to collect antibiotic-use data through a European network of national surveillance systems. This paper reports on the retrospective data collection in ambulatory care for the period 1997-2002. Methods: Valid data of antibiotic consumption of 24 European countries for 2002 and of 18 countries for the entire 6-year period was classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification (ATC) and expressed in defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). Overall and subgroup comparison of antibiotic consumption over time as well as between geographical clusters was performed. Results: Total use of antibiotics in Europe remained at a median level of 20 DID in the period 1997-2002 with a wide variation between countries ranging from 9.8 DID in The Netherlands to 32.2 DID in France. A substantial increase in subclass consumption of co-amoxiclav and fluoroquinolones was noted while the use of narrow-spectrum penicillins, erythromycin, quinolones and sulfonamides decreased. Total consumption as well as seasonal fluctuations showed remarkable geographical clustering with low consumption and low variation between summer and winter in the North, high consumption patterns in the South and a mixed model in the East. Conclusions: Within the ESAC project, valid time series of antibiotic-use data are publicly available now, enabling to improve the study of determinants of use, the evaluation of governmental antibiotic consumption policies and the investigation of the associated emergence of antibiotic resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-123
Number of pages9
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2007

Fingerprint

Ambulatory Care
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination
Quinolones
Fluoroquinolones
Sulfonamides
Erythromycin
Microbial Drug Resistance
Penicillins
Netherlands
France
Cluster Analysis

Keywords

  • Ambulatory care
  • Antibiotic consumption
  • ATC/DDD classification
  • Cephalosporins
  • Macrolides
  • Penicillins
  • Quinolones
  • Seasonality
  • Sulfonamides
  • Tetracyclines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Elseviers, M. M., Ferech, M., Vander Stichele, R. H., Goossens, H., Mittermayer, H., Metz, S., ... Davey, P. (2007). Antibiotic use in ambulatory care in Europe (ESAC data 1997-2002): Trends, regional differences and seasonal fluctuations. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 16(1), 115-123. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.1244

Antibiotic use in ambulatory care in Europe (ESAC data 1997-2002) : Trends, regional differences and seasonal fluctuations. / Elseviers, Monique M.; Ferech, Matus; Vander Stichele, Robert H.; Goossens, Herman; Mittermayer, Helmut; Metz, Sigrid; Markova, Boyka; Andrasevic, Arjana; Francetic, Igor; Bagatzouni, Despo; Vlcek, Jiri; Monnet, Dominique L.; Nielsen, Annemette Anker; Rootslane, Ly; Huovinen, Pentti; Paakkari, Pirkko; Cavalié, Philippe; Guillemot, Didier; Kern, Winfried; Schroeder, Helmut; Giamarellou, Helen; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Ternák, G.; Kristinsson, Karl; Cunney, Robert; Oza, Ajay; Raz, Raul; Cornaglia, Giuseppe; Berzina, Sandra; Valenteliene, Rolanda; Hemmer, Robert; Bruch, Marcel; Borg, Michael; Zarb, Peter; Janknegt, Robert; Filius, Margreet; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Grzesiowski, Pawel; Caldeira, Luis; Codita, Irina; Stratchounski, Leonid; Ratchina, Svetlana; Foltan, Viliam; Tesar, Tomas; Cizman, Milan; Campos, José; Cars, Otto; Skoog, Gunilla; Mölstad, Sigvard; Masiero, Giuliano; Unal, Serhat; Davey, Peter.

In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, Vol. 16, No. 1, 01.2007, p. 115-123.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Elseviers, MM, Ferech, M, Vander Stichele, RH, Goossens, H, Mittermayer, H, Metz, S, Markova, B, Andrasevic, A, Francetic, I, Bagatzouni, D, Vlcek, J, Monnet, DL, Nielsen, AA, Rootslane, L, Huovinen, P, Paakkari, P, Cavalié, P, Guillemot, D, Kern, W, Schroeder, H, Giamarellou, H, Antoniadou, A, Ternák, G, Kristinsson, K, Cunney, R, Oza, A, Raz, R, Cornaglia, G, Berzina, S, Valenteliene, R, Hemmer, R, Bruch, M, Borg, M, Zarb, P, Janknegt, R, Filius, M, Blix, HS, Hryniewicz, W, Grzesiowski, P, Caldeira, L, Codita, I, Stratchounski, L, Ratchina, S, Foltan, V, Tesar, T, Cizman, M, Campos, J, Cars, O, Skoog, G, Mölstad, S, Masiero, G, Unal, S & Davey, P 2007, 'Antibiotic use in ambulatory care in Europe (ESAC data 1997-2002): Trends, regional differences and seasonal fluctuations', Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 115-123. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.1244
Elseviers, Monique M. ; Ferech, Matus ; Vander Stichele, Robert H. ; Goossens, Herman ; Mittermayer, Helmut ; Metz, Sigrid ; Markova, Boyka ; Andrasevic, Arjana ; Francetic, Igor ; Bagatzouni, Despo ; Vlcek, Jiri ; Monnet, Dominique L. ; Nielsen, Annemette Anker ; Rootslane, Ly ; Huovinen, Pentti ; Paakkari, Pirkko ; Cavalié, Philippe ; Guillemot, Didier ; Kern, Winfried ; Schroeder, Helmut ; Giamarellou, Helen ; Antoniadou, Anastasia ; Ternák, G. ; Kristinsson, Karl ; Cunney, Robert ; Oza, Ajay ; Raz, Raul ; Cornaglia, Giuseppe ; Berzina, Sandra ; Valenteliene, Rolanda ; Hemmer, Robert ; Bruch, Marcel ; Borg, Michael ; Zarb, Peter ; Janknegt, Robert ; Filius, Margreet ; Blix, Hege Salvesen ; Hryniewicz, Waleria ; Grzesiowski, Pawel ; Caldeira, Luis ; Codita, Irina ; Stratchounski, Leonid ; Ratchina, Svetlana ; Foltan, Viliam ; Tesar, Tomas ; Cizman, Milan ; Campos, José ; Cars, Otto ; Skoog, Gunilla ; Mölstad, Sigvard ; Masiero, Giuliano ; Unal, Serhat ; Davey, Peter. / Antibiotic use in ambulatory care in Europe (ESAC data 1997-2002) : Trends, regional differences and seasonal fluctuations. In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2007 ; Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 115-123.
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AU - Elseviers, Monique M.

AU - Ferech, Matus

AU - Vander Stichele, Robert H.

AU - Goossens, Herman

AU - Mittermayer, Helmut

AU - Metz, Sigrid

AU - Markova, Boyka

AU - Andrasevic, Arjana

AU - Francetic, Igor

AU - Bagatzouni, Despo

AU - Vlcek, Jiri

AU - Monnet, Dominique L.

AU - Nielsen, Annemette Anker

AU - Rootslane, Ly

AU - Huovinen, Pentti

AU - Paakkari, Pirkko

AU - Cavalié, Philippe

AU - Guillemot, Didier

AU - Kern, Winfried

AU - Schroeder, Helmut

AU - Giamarellou, Helen

AU - Antoniadou, Anastasia

AU - Ternák, G.

AU - Kristinsson, Karl

AU - Cunney, Robert

AU - Oza, Ajay

AU - Raz, Raul

AU - Cornaglia, Giuseppe

AU - Berzina, Sandra

AU - Valenteliene, Rolanda

AU - Hemmer, Robert

AU - Bruch, Marcel

AU - Borg, Michael

AU - Zarb, Peter

AU - Janknegt, Robert

AU - Filius, Margreet

AU - Blix, Hege Salvesen

AU - Hryniewicz, Waleria

AU - Grzesiowski, Pawel

AU - Caldeira, Luis

AU - Codita, Irina

AU - Stratchounski, Leonid

AU - Ratchina, Svetlana

AU - Foltan, Viliam

AU - Tesar, Tomas

AU - Cizman, Milan

AU - Campos, José

AU - Cars, Otto

AU - Skoog, Gunilla

AU - Mölstad, Sigvard

AU - Masiero, Giuliano

AU - Unal, Serhat

AU - Davey, Peter

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KW - Cephalosporins

KW - Macrolides

KW - Penicillins

KW - Quinolones

KW - Seasonality

KW - Sulfonamides

KW - Tetracyclines

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