OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in combination with a subthreshold preconditioning (PC) stimulus to elicit delayed preconditioning against infarction in pig myocardium. BACKGROUND: Bradykinin triggers early PC. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increase local bradykinin levels via inhibition of kinin breakdown and have been shown in experimental studies to augment early protection afforded by PC. A role for bradykinin in eliciting delayed PC has not so far been identified. METHODS: We used a two-day protocol. On day 1 (closed chest), pigs were either sham-operated (group 1) or preconditioned, using balloon catheter inflation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, with either a full (4 × 5 min PC, group 2) or subthreshold PC stimulus (2 × 2 min PC, group 3). Additional groups were pre-treated with perindoprilat (0.06 mg/kg i.v.) before sham (group 4) or subthreshold PC (group 5). On day 2 (open chest), all pigs were subjected to 40 min occlusion of the LAD followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by tetrazolium staining. RESULTS: Group 1 had a mean infarct size of 42.8 ± 3.2% of the risk zone. Preconditioning with 4 × 5 min reduced the infarct size to 19.5 ± 3.9% (p < 0.05). Groups 3 and 4 had infarct sizes not statistically different from group 1. However, combining perindoprilat with subthreshold PC resulted in a significant limitation of the infarction (18.4 ± 3.1% p < 0.05), comparable with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that ACE inhibition can augment a mild ischemic stimulus to induce a protected state 24 h later.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine