Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

Iosif Lazaridis, Nick Patterson, Alissa Mittnik, Gabriel Renaud, Swapan Mallick, Karola Kirsanow, Peter H. Sudmant, Joshua G. Schraiber, Sergi Castellano, Mark Lipson, Bonnie Berger, Christos Economou, Ruth Bollongino, Qiaomei Fu, Kirsten I. Bos, Susanne Nordenfelt, Heng Li, Cesare De Filippo, Kay Prüfer, Susanna Sawyer & 100 others Cosimo Posth, Wolfgang Haak, Fredrik Hallgren, Elin Fornander, Nadin Rohland, Dominique Delsate, Michael Francken, Jean Michel Guinet, Joachim Wahl, George Ayodo, Hamza A. Babiker, Graciela Bailliet, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Ramiro Barrantes, Gabriel Bedoya, Haim Ben-Ami, J. Bene, Fouad Berrada, Claudio M. Bravi, Francesca Brisighelli, George B J Busby, Francesco Cali, Mikhail Churnosov, David E C Cole, Daniel Corach, Larissa Damba, George Van Driem, Stanislav Dryomov, Jean Michel Dugoujon, Sardana A. Fedorova, Irene Gallego Romero, Marina Gubina, Michael Hammer, Brenna M. Henn, Tor Hervig, Ugur Hodoglugil, Aashish R. Jha, Sena Karachanak-Yankova, Rita Khusainova, Elza Khusnutdinova, Rick Kittles, Toomas Kivisild, William Klitz, Vaidutis Kučinskas, Alena Kushniarevich, Leila Laredj, Sergey Litvinov, Theologos Loukidis, Robert W. Mahley, B. Melegh, Ene Metspalu, Julio Molina, Joanna Mountain, Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi, Desislava Nesheva, Thomas Nyambo, Ludmila Osipova, Jüri Parik, Fedor Platonov, Olga Posukh, Valentino Romano, Francisco Rothhammer, Igor Rudan, Ruslan Ruizbakiev, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Antti Sajantila, Antonio Salas, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Ayele Tarekegn, Draga Toncheva, Shahlo Turdikulova, Ingrida Uktveryte, Olga Utevska, René Vasquez, Mercedes Villena, Mikhail Voevoda, Cheryl A. Winkler, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Pierre Zalloua, Tatijana Zemunik, Alan Cooper, Cristian Capelli, Mark G. Thomas, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Sarah A. Tishkoff, Lalji Singh, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Richard Villems, David Comas, Rem Sukernik, Mait Metspalu, Matthias Meyer, Evan E. Eichler, Joachim Burger, Montgomery Slatkin, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso, David Reich, Johannes Krause

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

431 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes1-4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-413
Number of pages5
JournalNature
Volume513
Issue number7518
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 18 2014

Fingerprint

Human Genome
Luxembourg
Population
Sweden
Germany
Genome
Farmers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Lazaridis, I., Patterson, N., Mittnik, A., Renaud, G., Mallick, S., Kirsanow, K., ... Krause, J. (2014). Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature, 513(7518), 409-413. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13673

Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. / Lazaridis, Iosif; Patterson, Nick; Mittnik, Alissa; Renaud, Gabriel; Mallick, Swapan; Kirsanow, Karola; Sudmant, Peter H.; Schraiber, Joshua G.; Castellano, Sergi; Lipson, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Economou, Christos; Bollongino, Ruth; Fu, Qiaomei; Bos, Kirsten I.; Nordenfelt, Susanne; Li, Heng; De Filippo, Cesare; Prüfer, Kay; Sawyer, Susanna; Posth, Cosimo; Haak, Wolfgang; Hallgren, Fredrik; Fornander, Elin; Rohland, Nadin; Delsate, Dominique; Francken, Michael; Guinet, Jean Michel; Wahl, Joachim; Ayodo, George; Babiker, Hamza A.; Bailliet, Graciela; Balanovska, Elena; Balanovsky, Oleg; Barrantes, Ramiro; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ben-Ami, Haim; Bene, J.; Berrada, Fouad; Bravi, Claudio M.; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Cali, Francesco; Churnosov, Mikhail; Cole, David E C; Corach, Daniel; Damba, Larissa; Van Driem, George; Dryomov, Stanislav; Dugoujon, Jean Michel; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Gallego Romero, Irene; Gubina, Marina; Hammer, Michael; Henn, Brenna M.; Hervig, Tor; Hodoglugil, Ugur; Jha, Aashish R.; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena; Khusainova, Rita; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kittles, Rick; Kivisild, Toomas; Klitz, William; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kushniarevich, Alena; Laredj, Leila; Litvinov, Sergey; Loukidis, Theologos; Mahley, Robert W.; Melegh, B.; Metspalu, Ene; Molina, Julio; Mountain, Joanna; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti; Nesheva, Desislava; Nyambo, Thomas; Osipova, Ludmila; Parik, Jüri; Platonov, Fedor; Posukh, Olga; Romano, Valentino; Rothhammer, Francisco; Rudan, Igor; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Sajantila, Antti; Salas, Antonio; Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Tarekegn, Ayele; Toncheva, Draga; Turdikulova, Shahlo; Uktveryte, Ingrida; Utevska, Olga; Vasquez, René; Villena, Mercedes; Voevoda, Mikhail; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Zalloua, Pierre; Zemunik, Tatijana; Cooper, Alan; Capelli, Cristian; Thomas, Mark G.; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Villems, Richard; Comas, David; Sukernik, Rem; Metspalu, Mait; Meyer, Matthias; Eichler, Evan E.; Burger, Joachim; Slatkin, Montgomery; Pääbo, Svante; Kelso, Janet; Reich, David; Krause, Johannes.

In: Nature, Vol. 513, No. 7518, 18.09.2014, p. 409-413.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lazaridis, I, Patterson, N, Mittnik, A, Renaud, G, Mallick, S, Kirsanow, K, Sudmant, PH, Schraiber, JG, Castellano, S, Lipson, M, Berger, B, Economou, C, Bollongino, R, Fu, Q, Bos, KI, Nordenfelt, S, Li, H, De Filippo, C, Prüfer, K, Sawyer, S, Posth, C, Haak, W, Hallgren, F, Fornander, E, Rohland, N, Delsate, D, Francken, M, Guinet, JM, Wahl, J, Ayodo, G, Babiker, HA, Bailliet, G, Balanovska, E, Balanovsky, O, Barrantes, R, Bedoya, G, Ben-Ami, H, Bene, J, Berrada, F, Bravi, CM, Brisighelli, F, Busby, GBJ, Cali, F, Churnosov, M, Cole, DEC, Corach, D, Damba, L, Van Driem, G, Dryomov, S, Dugoujon, JM, Fedorova, SA, Gallego Romero, I, Gubina, M, Hammer, M, Henn, BM, Hervig, T, Hodoglugil, U, Jha, AR, Karachanak-Yankova, S, Khusainova, R, Khusnutdinova, E, Kittles, R, Kivisild, T, Klitz, W, Kučinskas, V, Kushniarevich, A, Laredj, L, Litvinov, S, Loukidis, T, Mahley, RW, Melegh, B, Metspalu, E, Molina, J, Mountain, J, Näkkäläjärvi, K, Nesheva, D, Nyambo, T, Osipova, L, Parik, J, Platonov, F, Posukh, O, Romano, V, Rothhammer, F, Rudan, I, Ruizbakiev, R, Sahakyan, H, Sajantila, A, Salas, A, Starikovskaya, EB, Tarekegn, A, Toncheva, D, Turdikulova, S, Uktveryte, I, Utevska, O, Vasquez, R, Villena, M, Voevoda, M, Winkler, CA, Yepiskoposyan, L, Zalloua, P, Zemunik, T, Cooper, A, Capelli, C, Thomas, MG, Ruiz-Linares, A, Tishkoff, SA, Singh, L, Thangaraj, K, Villems, R, Comas, D, Sukernik, R, Metspalu, M, Meyer, M, Eichler, EE, Burger, J, Slatkin, M, Pääbo, S, Kelso, J, Reich, D & Krause, J 2014, 'Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans', Nature, vol. 513, no. 7518, pp. 409-413. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13673
Lazaridis I, Patterson N, Mittnik A, Renaud G, Mallick S, Kirsanow K et al. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):409-413. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13673
Lazaridis, Iosif ; Patterson, Nick ; Mittnik, Alissa ; Renaud, Gabriel ; Mallick, Swapan ; Kirsanow, Karola ; Sudmant, Peter H. ; Schraiber, Joshua G. ; Castellano, Sergi ; Lipson, Mark ; Berger, Bonnie ; Economou, Christos ; Bollongino, Ruth ; Fu, Qiaomei ; Bos, Kirsten I. ; Nordenfelt, Susanne ; Li, Heng ; De Filippo, Cesare ; Prüfer, Kay ; Sawyer, Susanna ; Posth, Cosimo ; Haak, Wolfgang ; Hallgren, Fredrik ; Fornander, Elin ; Rohland, Nadin ; Delsate, Dominique ; Francken, Michael ; Guinet, Jean Michel ; Wahl, Joachim ; Ayodo, George ; Babiker, Hamza A. ; Bailliet, Graciela ; Balanovska, Elena ; Balanovsky, Oleg ; Barrantes, Ramiro ; Bedoya, Gabriel ; Ben-Ami, Haim ; Bene, J. ; Berrada, Fouad ; Bravi, Claudio M. ; Brisighelli, Francesca ; Busby, George B J ; Cali, Francesco ; Churnosov, Mikhail ; Cole, David E C ; Corach, Daniel ; Damba, Larissa ; Van Driem, George ; Dryomov, Stanislav ; Dugoujon, Jean Michel ; Fedorova, Sardana A. ; Gallego Romero, Irene ; Gubina, Marina ; Hammer, Michael ; Henn, Brenna M. ; Hervig, Tor ; Hodoglugil, Ugur ; Jha, Aashish R. ; Karachanak-Yankova, Sena ; Khusainova, Rita ; Khusnutdinova, Elza ; Kittles, Rick ; Kivisild, Toomas ; Klitz, William ; Kučinskas, Vaidutis ; Kushniarevich, Alena ; Laredj, Leila ; Litvinov, Sergey ; Loukidis, Theologos ; Mahley, Robert W. ; Melegh, B. ; Metspalu, Ene ; Molina, Julio ; Mountain, Joanna ; Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti ; Nesheva, Desislava ; Nyambo, Thomas ; Osipova, Ludmila ; Parik, Jüri ; Platonov, Fedor ; Posukh, Olga ; Romano, Valentino ; Rothhammer, Francisco ; Rudan, Igor ; Ruizbakiev, Ruslan ; Sahakyan, Hovhannes ; Sajantila, Antti ; Salas, Antonio ; Starikovskaya, Elena B. ; Tarekegn, Ayele ; Toncheva, Draga ; Turdikulova, Shahlo ; Uktveryte, Ingrida ; Utevska, Olga ; Vasquez, René ; Villena, Mercedes ; Voevoda, Mikhail ; Winkler, Cheryl A. ; Yepiskoposyan, Levon ; Zalloua, Pierre ; Zemunik, Tatijana ; Cooper, Alan ; Capelli, Cristian ; Thomas, Mark G. ; Ruiz-Linares, Andres ; Tishkoff, Sarah A. ; Singh, Lalji ; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy ; Villems, Richard ; Comas, David ; Sukernik, Rem ; Metspalu, Mait ; Meyer, Matthias ; Eichler, Evan E. ; Burger, Joachim ; Slatkin, Montgomery ; Pääbo, Svante ; Kelso, Janet ; Reich, David ; Krause, Johannes. / Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. In: Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 513, No. 7518. pp. 409-413.
@article{ef23b26d27ad4fb88050066587dc3479,
title = "Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans",
abstract = "We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes1-4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44{\%} ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.",
author = "Iosif Lazaridis and Nick Patterson and Alissa Mittnik and Gabriel Renaud and Swapan Mallick and Karola Kirsanow and Sudmant, {Peter H.} and Schraiber, {Joshua G.} and Sergi Castellano and Mark Lipson and Bonnie Berger and Christos Economou and Ruth Bollongino and Qiaomei Fu and Bos, {Kirsten I.} and Susanne Nordenfelt and Heng Li and {De Filippo}, Cesare and Kay Pr{\"u}fer and Susanna Sawyer and Cosimo Posth and Wolfgang Haak and Fredrik Hallgren and Elin Fornander and Nadin Rohland and Dominique Delsate and Michael Francken and Guinet, {Jean Michel} and Joachim Wahl and George Ayodo and Babiker, {Hamza A.} and Graciela Bailliet and Elena Balanovska and Oleg Balanovsky and Ramiro Barrantes and Gabriel Bedoya and Haim Ben-Ami and J. Bene and Fouad Berrada and Bravi, {Claudio M.} and Francesca Brisighelli and Busby, {George B J} and Francesco Cali and Mikhail Churnosov and Cole, {David E C} and Daniel Corach and Larissa Damba and {Van Driem}, George and Stanislav Dryomov and Dugoujon, {Jean Michel} and Fedorova, {Sardana A.} and {Gallego Romero}, Irene and Marina Gubina and Michael Hammer and Henn, {Brenna M.} and Tor Hervig and Ugur Hodoglugil and Jha, {Aashish R.} and Sena Karachanak-Yankova and Rita Khusainova and Elza Khusnutdinova and Rick Kittles and Toomas Kivisild and William Klitz and Vaidutis Kučinskas and Alena Kushniarevich and Leila Laredj and Sergey Litvinov and Theologos Loukidis and Mahley, {Robert W.} and B. Melegh and Ene Metspalu and Julio Molina and Joanna Mountain and Klemetti N{\"a}kk{\"a}l{\"a}j{\"a}rvi and Desislava Nesheva and Thomas Nyambo and Ludmila Osipova and J{\"u}ri Parik and Fedor Platonov and Olga Posukh and Valentino Romano and Francisco Rothhammer and Igor Rudan and Ruslan Ruizbakiev and Hovhannes Sahakyan and Antti Sajantila and Antonio Salas and Starikovskaya, {Elena B.} and Ayele Tarekegn and Draga Toncheva and Shahlo Turdikulova and Ingrida Uktveryte and Olga Utevska and Ren{\'e} Vasquez and Mercedes Villena and Mikhail Voevoda and Winkler, {Cheryl A.} and Levon Yepiskoposyan and Pierre Zalloua and Tatijana Zemunik and Alan Cooper and Cristian Capelli and Thomas, {Mark G.} and Andres Ruiz-Linares and Tishkoff, {Sarah A.} and Lalji Singh and Kumarasamy Thangaraj and Richard Villems and David Comas and Rem Sukernik and Mait Metspalu and Matthias Meyer and Eichler, {Evan E.} and Joachim Burger and Montgomery Slatkin and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo and Janet Kelso and David Reich and Johannes Krause",
year = "2014",
month = "9",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1038/nature13673",
language = "English",
volume = "513",
pages = "409--413",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7518",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

AU - Lazaridis, Iosif

AU - Patterson, Nick

AU - Mittnik, Alissa

AU - Renaud, Gabriel

AU - Mallick, Swapan

AU - Kirsanow, Karola

AU - Sudmant, Peter H.

AU - Schraiber, Joshua G.

AU - Castellano, Sergi

AU - Lipson, Mark

AU - Berger, Bonnie

AU - Economou, Christos

AU - Bollongino, Ruth

AU - Fu, Qiaomei

AU - Bos, Kirsten I.

AU - Nordenfelt, Susanne

AU - Li, Heng

AU - De Filippo, Cesare

AU - Prüfer, Kay

AU - Sawyer, Susanna

AU - Posth, Cosimo

AU - Haak, Wolfgang

AU - Hallgren, Fredrik

AU - Fornander, Elin

AU - Rohland, Nadin

AU - Delsate, Dominique

AU - Francken, Michael

AU - Guinet, Jean Michel

AU - Wahl, Joachim

AU - Ayodo, George

AU - Babiker, Hamza A.

AU - Bailliet, Graciela

AU - Balanovska, Elena

AU - Balanovsky, Oleg

AU - Barrantes, Ramiro

AU - Bedoya, Gabriel

AU - Ben-Ami, Haim

AU - Bene, J.

AU - Berrada, Fouad

AU - Bravi, Claudio M.

AU - Brisighelli, Francesca

AU - Busby, George B J

AU - Cali, Francesco

AU - Churnosov, Mikhail

AU - Cole, David E C

AU - Corach, Daniel

AU - Damba, Larissa

AU - Van Driem, George

AU - Dryomov, Stanislav

AU - Dugoujon, Jean Michel

AU - Fedorova, Sardana A.

AU - Gallego Romero, Irene

AU - Gubina, Marina

AU - Hammer, Michael

AU - Henn, Brenna M.

AU - Hervig, Tor

AU - Hodoglugil, Ugur

AU - Jha, Aashish R.

AU - Karachanak-Yankova, Sena

AU - Khusainova, Rita

AU - Khusnutdinova, Elza

AU - Kittles, Rick

AU - Kivisild, Toomas

AU - Klitz, William

AU - Kučinskas, Vaidutis

AU - Kushniarevich, Alena

AU - Laredj, Leila

AU - Litvinov, Sergey

AU - Loukidis, Theologos

AU - Mahley, Robert W.

AU - Melegh, B.

AU - Metspalu, Ene

AU - Molina, Julio

AU - Mountain, Joanna

AU - Näkkäläjärvi, Klemetti

AU - Nesheva, Desislava

AU - Nyambo, Thomas

AU - Osipova, Ludmila

AU - Parik, Jüri

AU - Platonov, Fedor

AU - Posukh, Olga

AU - Romano, Valentino

AU - Rothhammer, Francisco

AU - Rudan, Igor

AU - Ruizbakiev, Ruslan

AU - Sahakyan, Hovhannes

AU - Sajantila, Antti

AU - Salas, Antonio

AU - Starikovskaya, Elena B.

AU - Tarekegn, Ayele

AU - Toncheva, Draga

AU - Turdikulova, Shahlo

AU - Uktveryte, Ingrida

AU - Utevska, Olga

AU - Vasquez, René

AU - Villena, Mercedes

AU - Voevoda, Mikhail

AU - Winkler, Cheryl A.

AU - Yepiskoposyan, Levon

AU - Zalloua, Pierre

AU - Zemunik, Tatijana

AU - Cooper, Alan

AU - Capelli, Cristian

AU - Thomas, Mark G.

AU - Ruiz-Linares, Andres

AU - Tishkoff, Sarah A.

AU - Singh, Lalji

AU - Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

AU - Villems, Richard

AU - Comas, David

AU - Sukernik, Rem

AU - Metspalu, Mait

AU - Meyer, Matthias

AU - Eichler, Evan E.

AU - Burger, Joachim

AU - Slatkin, Montgomery

AU - Pääbo, Svante

AU - Kelso, Janet

AU - Reich, David

AU - Krause, Johannes

PY - 2014/9/18

Y1 - 2014/9/18

N2 - We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes1-4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.

AB - We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes1-4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84907803675&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84907803675&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature13673

DO - 10.1038/nature13673

M3 - Article

VL - 513

SP - 409

EP - 413

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7518

ER -