Analyzing Models of Work Addiction: Single Factor and Bi-Factor Models of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale

Gábor Orosz, Edina Dombi, Cecile Schou Andreassen, Mark D. Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)


Work addiction (‘workaholism’) has become an increasingly studied topic in the behavioral addictions literature and had led to the development of a number of instruments to assess it. One such instrument is the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS - Andreassen et al. 2012Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53, 265-272). However, the BWAS has never been investigated in Eastern-European countries. The goal of the present study was to examine the factor structure, the reliability and cut-off scores of the BWAS in a comprehensive Hungarian sample. This study is a direct extension of the original validation of BWAS by providing results on the basis of representative data and the development of appropriate cut-off scores. The study utilized an online questionnaire with a Hungarian representative sample including 500 respondents (F = 251; Mage = 35.05 years) who completed the BWAS. A series of confirmatory factor analyses were carried out leading to a short, 7-item first-order factor structure and a longer 14-item seven-factor nested structure. Despite the good validity of the longer version, its reliability was not as high as it could have been. One-fifth (20.6 %) of the Hungarians who used the internet at least weekly were categorized as work addicts using the BWAS. It is recommended that researchers use the original seven items from the Norwegian scale in order to facilitate and stimulate cross-national research on addiction to work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)662-671
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Assessment
  • Bergen Work Addiction Scale
  • Factor structure
  • Work addiction
  • Workaholism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Analyzing Models of Work Addiction: Single Factor and Bi-Factor Models of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this