A nitrogén és a réz közötti kölcsönhatás vizsgálata szabadföldi kukorica kísérletben

Translated title of the contribution: Analysis of interactions between N and C fertilization in a field experiment on maize

I. Kádár, Péter Csathó

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Interactions between the elements N and C were investigated in a field experiment on maize, set up on chernozem loam soil with lime deposits in 1991. The ploughed layer contained 3% humus, around 5% CaCO3 and around 20% clay. Soil analysis re-vealed that the soil had good supplies of Ca, Mg, K and Mn, satisfactory supplies of Cu, a moderate quantity of N and a poor to medium level of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. The experiment in-volved 4N×3Cu = 12 treatments in 3 replications, giving a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. Nitrogen was supplied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg•ha-1 and copper as CuSO4 at rates of 0, 50 and 100 kg•ha-1. April, May and July were very dry. The main results were as follows: 1. There was very little rainfall in the first half of 1991, so N fertilization led to yield losses. There was a significant reduction in the number of fertile plants, and the 1000-kernel weight was only 278 g. Cu fertilisation resulted in a significant rise in the num-ber of kernels per plant and in the grain weight per year. The grain yield ranged from 7.0-8.6 t•ha-1 as a function of the N×Cu treatments. 2. In response to excessive N supplies, i.e. N rates substantially higher than the agronomically justifiable level, there was an increase in the N% in the roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, in the N and Zn uptake of the leaves at the beginning of flowering, and in the N, K and Ca concentrations of the stalks at harvest. On average, the Cu con-tents in the young shoots, in leaves at the beginning of flowering and in the stalks were 1/3 higher after Cu fertilisation, which was significantly higher than the control. The Cu concentration in the roots, however, exhibited a 2.5× increase after Cu application, indicating that the vertical movement of Cu within the plant was inhibited. 3. A total of around 114 kg N, 77 kg K (92 kg K2O), 22 kg P (50 kg P2O5), 15 kg Ca and 18 kg Mg was incorporated into the 12 t•ha-1 aboveground biomass (kernels + stalks). The specific element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products was 15 kg N, 10 kg K (12 kg K2O), 3 kg P (7 kg P2O5) and around 3 kg each of CaO and MgO. These findings could provide guidelines for the extension service when calculat-ing the element requirements of the planned maize yield. Table 1. Agronomic operations and observations in the maize experiment in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Operations and observations. (2) Date. (3) Methodological guidelines. Note: Sowing at a depth of 5-7 cm with 20 kg•ha-1 seed and a row and plant spacing of 70×25 cm. Table 2. Effect of N treatments on the development of maize and the plant density at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•év-1 (2) Scoring (1 = poorly developed, 5 = well-developed). (3) Plant density at harvest. (4) Fertile, db•ha-1 (5) Barren, db•ha-1 (4) Total, db•ha-1. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Mean kernel No./plant 399, grain mass/ear 111 g, kernel No./m2 2700, thousand-kernel weight 278 g, shelling percentage 88%, effectivity 67% irrespective of the treatments. Table 3. Effect of N×Cu treatments on the air-dry yield of maize in various phenological phases, 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Cu rate, kg•ha-1. (2) N fertilisation, kg N•ha-1•év-1. (3) Mean. (4) LSD5%. A. Air-dry 4-6-leaf shoots, g. B. Air-dry roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, g. C. Air-dry stalks, t•ha-1. D. Air-dry kernels, t•ha-1. E. Air-dry stalks + cobs + kernels, t•ha-1. Note: Cobs averaged 1 t•ha-1, shelling ratio 88%. Table 4. Effect of N fertilisation on the element content of maize in 1991 (cher-nozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•év-1. (2) Shoots N, %. (3) Roots N, %. (4) Leaf N, %. (5) Leaf element content, mg•kg-1 (6) Element content of the stalks at harvest, %. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Shoots and roots in the 4-6-leaf stage, leaves at the beginning of flowering. Table 5. Effect of Cu fertilization on the yield components of maize and the Cu con-tent of plant organs (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Cu rates, kg•ha-1. (2) Yield components at harvest. (3) Cu content, mg•kg-1. (4) Ker-nels. (5) Shoots. (6) Roots. (7) Leaves. (8) Stalks. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Mean 1000-kernel weight: 278 g. Table 6. Mean composition of maize in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime depos-its, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Shoots. (4) Roots. (5) Leaves. (6) Stalks. (7) Kernels. (8) In the 4-6-leaf stage. (9) At flowering. (10) At har-vest. Table 7. Mean element uptake of maize at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Stalks. (4) Kernels. (5) Together. (6) Specific content. Note: Element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)177-188
Number of pages12
JournalAgrokemia es Talajtan
Volume64
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2015

Fingerprint

maize
loam soils
Chernozem
loam
lime
corn
seeds
leaves
shoot
air
flowering
shoots
soil
shelling
plant density
yield components
byproducts
analysis
field experiment
calcium ammonium nitrate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

A nitrogén és a réz közötti kölcsönhatás vizsgálata szabadföldi kukorica kísérletben. / Kádár, I.; Csathó, Péter.

In: Agrokemia es Talajtan, Vol. 64, No. 1, 01.06.2015, p. 177-188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "A nitrog{\'e}n {\'e}s a r{\'e}z k{\"o}z{\"o}tti k{\"o}lcs{\"o}nhat{\'a}s vizsg{\'a}lata szabadf{\"o}ldi kukorica k{\'i}s{\'e}rletben",
abstract = "Interactions between the elements N and C were investigated in a field experiment on maize, set up on chernozem loam soil with lime deposits in 1991. The ploughed layer contained 3{\%} humus, around 5{\%} CaCO3 and around 20{\%} clay. Soil analysis re-vealed that the soil had good supplies of Ca, Mg, K and Mn, satisfactory supplies of Cu, a moderate quantity of N and a poor to medium level of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. The experiment in-volved 4N×3Cu = 12 treatments in 3 replications, giving a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. Nitrogen was supplied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg•ha-1 and copper as CuSO4 at rates of 0, 50 and 100 kg•ha-1. April, May and July were very dry. The main results were as follows: 1. There was very little rainfall in the first half of 1991, so N fertilization led to yield losses. There was a significant reduction in the number of fertile plants, and the 1000-kernel weight was only 278 g. Cu fertilisation resulted in a significant rise in the num-ber of kernels per plant and in the grain weight per year. The grain yield ranged from 7.0-8.6 t•ha-1 as a function of the N×Cu treatments. 2. In response to excessive N supplies, i.e. N rates substantially higher than the agronomically justifiable level, there was an increase in the N{\%} in the roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, in the N and Zn uptake of the leaves at the beginning of flowering, and in the N, K and Ca concentrations of the stalks at harvest. On average, the Cu con-tents in the young shoots, in leaves at the beginning of flowering and in the stalks were 1/3 higher after Cu fertilisation, which was significantly higher than the control. The Cu concentration in the roots, however, exhibited a 2.5× increase after Cu application, indicating that the vertical movement of Cu within the plant was inhibited. 3. A total of around 114 kg N, 77 kg K (92 kg K2O), 22 kg P (50 kg P2O5), 15 kg Ca and 18 kg Mg was incorporated into the 12 t•ha-1 aboveground biomass (kernels + stalks). The specific element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products was 15 kg N, 10 kg K (12 kg K2O), 3 kg P (7 kg P2O5) and around 3 kg each of CaO and MgO. These findings could provide guidelines for the extension service when calculat-ing the element requirements of the planned maize yield. Table 1. Agronomic operations and observations in the maize experiment in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) Operations and observations. (2) Date. (3) Methodological guidelines. Note: Sowing at a depth of 5-7 cm with 20 kg•ha-1 seed and a row and plant spacing of 70×25 cm. Table 2. Effect of N treatments on the development of maize and the plant density at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•{\'e}v-1 (2) Scoring (1 = poorly developed, 5 = well-developed). (3) Plant density at harvest. (4) Fertile, db•ha-1 (5) Barren, db•ha-1 (4) Total, db•ha-1. a) Mean, b) LSD5{\%}. Note: Mean kernel No./plant 399, grain mass/ear 111 g, kernel No./m2 2700, thousand-kernel weight 278 g, shelling percentage 88{\%}, effectivity 67{\%} irrespective of the treatments. Table 3. Effect of N×Cu treatments on the air-dry yield of maize in various phenological phases, 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) Cu rate, kg•ha-1. (2) N fertilisation, kg N•ha-1•{\'e}v-1. (3) Mean. (4) LSD5{\%}. A. Air-dry 4-6-leaf shoots, g. B. Air-dry roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, g. C. Air-dry stalks, t•ha-1. D. Air-dry kernels, t•ha-1. E. Air-dry stalks + cobs + kernels, t•ha-1. Note: Cobs averaged 1 t•ha-1, shelling ratio 88{\%}. Table 4. Effect of N fertilisation on the element content of maize in 1991 (cher-nozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•{\'e}v-1. (2) Shoots N, {\%}. (3) Roots N, {\%}. (4) Leaf N, {\%}. (5) Leaf element content, mg•kg-1 (6) Element content of the stalks at harvest, {\%}. a) Mean, b) LSD5{\%}. Note: Shoots and roots in the 4-6-leaf stage, leaves at the beginning of flowering. Table 5. Effect of Cu fertilization on the yield components of maize and the Cu con-tent of plant organs (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) Cu rates, kg•ha-1. (2) Yield components at harvest. (3) Cu content, mg•kg-1. (4) Ker-nels. (5) Shoots. (6) Roots. (7) Leaves. (8) Stalks. a) Mean, b) LSD5{\%}. Note: Mean 1000-kernel weight: 278 g. Table 6. Mean composition of maize in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime depos-its, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Shoots. (4) Roots. (5) Leaves. (6) Stalks. (7) Kernels. (8) In the 4-6-leaf stage. (9) At flowering. (10) At har-vest. Table 7. Mean element uptake of maize at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyh{\"o}rcs{\"o}k, Mez{\~o}f{\"o}ld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Stalks. (4) Kernels. (5) Together. (6) Specific content. Note: Element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products.",
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T1 - A nitrogén és a réz közötti kölcsönhatás vizsgálata szabadföldi kukorica kísérletben

AU - Kádár, I.

AU - Csathó, Péter

PY - 2015/6/1

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N2 - Interactions between the elements N and C were investigated in a field experiment on maize, set up on chernozem loam soil with lime deposits in 1991. The ploughed layer contained 3% humus, around 5% CaCO3 and around 20% clay. Soil analysis re-vealed that the soil had good supplies of Ca, Mg, K and Mn, satisfactory supplies of Cu, a moderate quantity of N and a poor to medium level of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. The experiment in-volved 4N×3Cu = 12 treatments in 3 replications, giving a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. Nitrogen was supplied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg•ha-1 and copper as CuSO4 at rates of 0, 50 and 100 kg•ha-1. April, May and July were very dry. The main results were as follows: 1. There was very little rainfall in the first half of 1991, so N fertilization led to yield losses. There was a significant reduction in the number of fertile plants, and the 1000-kernel weight was only 278 g. Cu fertilisation resulted in a significant rise in the num-ber of kernels per plant and in the grain weight per year. The grain yield ranged from 7.0-8.6 t•ha-1 as a function of the N×Cu treatments. 2. In response to excessive N supplies, i.e. N rates substantially higher than the agronomically justifiable level, there was an increase in the N% in the roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, in the N and Zn uptake of the leaves at the beginning of flowering, and in the N, K and Ca concentrations of the stalks at harvest. On average, the Cu con-tents in the young shoots, in leaves at the beginning of flowering and in the stalks were 1/3 higher after Cu fertilisation, which was significantly higher than the control. The Cu concentration in the roots, however, exhibited a 2.5× increase after Cu application, indicating that the vertical movement of Cu within the plant was inhibited. 3. A total of around 114 kg N, 77 kg K (92 kg K2O), 22 kg P (50 kg P2O5), 15 kg Ca and 18 kg Mg was incorporated into the 12 t•ha-1 aboveground biomass (kernels + stalks). The specific element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products was 15 kg N, 10 kg K (12 kg K2O), 3 kg P (7 kg P2O5) and around 3 kg each of CaO and MgO. These findings could provide guidelines for the extension service when calculat-ing the element requirements of the planned maize yield. Table 1. Agronomic operations and observations in the maize experiment in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Operations and observations. (2) Date. (3) Methodological guidelines. Note: Sowing at a depth of 5-7 cm with 20 kg•ha-1 seed and a row and plant spacing of 70×25 cm. Table 2. Effect of N treatments on the development of maize and the plant density at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•év-1 (2) Scoring (1 = poorly developed, 5 = well-developed). (3) Plant density at harvest. (4) Fertile, db•ha-1 (5) Barren, db•ha-1 (4) Total, db•ha-1. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Mean kernel No./plant 399, grain mass/ear 111 g, kernel No./m2 2700, thousand-kernel weight 278 g, shelling percentage 88%, effectivity 67% irrespective of the treatments. Table 3. Effect of N×Cu treatments on the air-dry yield of maize in various phenological phases, 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Cu rate, kg•ha-1. (2) N fertilisation, kg N•ha-1•év-1. (3) Mean. (4) LSD5%. A. Air-dry 4-6-leaf shoots, g. B. Air-dry roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, g. C. Air-dry stalks, t•ha-1. D. Air-dry kernels, t•ha-1. E. Air-dry stalks + cobs + kernels, t•ha-1. Note: Cobs averaged 1 t•ha-1, shelling ratio 88%. Table 4. Effect of N fertilisation on the element content of maize in 1991 (cher-nozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•év-1. (2) Shoots N, %. (3) Roots N, %. (4) Leaf N, %. (5) Leaf element content, mg•kg-1 (6) Element content of the stalks at harvest, %. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Shoots and roots in the 4-6-leaf stage, leaves at the beginning of flowering. Table 5. Effect of Cu fertilization on the yield components of maize and the Cu con-tent of plant organs (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Cu rates, kg•ha-1. (2) Yield components at harvest. (3) Cu content, mg•kg-1. (4) Ker-nels. (5) Shoots. (6) Roots. (7) Leaves. (8) Stalks. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Mean 1000-kernel weight: 278 g. Table 6. Mean composition of maize in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime depos-its, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Shoots. (4) Roots. (5) Leaves. (6) Stalks. (7) Kernels. (8) In the 4-6-leaf stage. (9) At flowering. (10) At har-vest. Table 7. Mean element uptake of maize at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Stalks. (4) Kernels. (5) Together. (6) Specific content. Note: Element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products.

AB - Interactions between the elements N and C were investigated in a field experiment on maize, set up on chernozem loam soil with lime deposits in 1991. The ploughed layer contained 3% humus, around 5% CaCO3 and around 20% clay. Soil analysis re-vealed that the soil had good supplies of Ca, Mg, K and Mn, satisfactory supplies of Cu, a moderate quantity of N and a poor to medium level of P and Zn. The groundwater was located at a depth of 13-15 m and the area was prone to drought. The experiment in-volved 4N×3Cu = 12 treatments in 3 replications, giving a total of 36 plots arranged in a split-plot design. Nitrogen was supplied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg•ha-1 and copper as CuSO4 at rates of 0, 50 and 100 kg•ha-1. April, May and July were very dry. The main results were as follows: 1. There was very little rainfall in the first half of 1991, so N fertilization led to yield losses. There was a significant reduction in the number of fertile plants, and the 1000-kernel weight was only 278 g. Cu fertilisation resulted in a significant rise in the num-ber of kernels per plant and in the grain weight per year. The grain yield ranged from 7.0-8.6 t•ha-1 as a function of the N×Cu treatments. 2. In response to excessive N supplies, i.e. N rates substantially higher than the agronomically justifiable level, there was an increase in the N% in the roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, in the N and Zn uptake of the leaves at the beginning of flowering, and in the N, K and Ca concentrations of the stalks at harvest. On average, the Cu con-tents in the young shoots, in leaves at the beginning of flowering and in the stalks were 1/3 higher after Cu fertilisation, which was significantly higher than the control. The Cu concentration in the roots, however, exhibited a 2.5× increase after Cu application, indicating that the vertical movement of Cu within the plant was inhibited. 3. A total of around 114 kg N, 77 kg K (92 kg K2O), 22 kg P (50 kg P2O5), 15 kg Ca and 18 kg Mg was incorporated into the 12 t•ha-1 aboveground biomass (kernels + stalks). The specific element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products was 15 kg N, 10 kg K (12 kg K2O), 3 kg P (7 kg P2O5) and around 3 kg each of CaO and MgO. These findings could provide guidelines for the extension service when calculat-ing the element requirements of the planned maize yield. Table 1. Agronomic operations and observations in the maize experiment in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Operations and observations. (2) Date. (3) Methodological guidelines. Note: Sowing at a depth of 5-7 cm with 20 kg•ha-1 seed and a row and plant spacing of 70×25 cm. Table 2. Effect of N treatments on the development of maize and the plant density at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•év-1 (2) Scoring (1 = poorly developed, 5 = well-developed). (3) Plant density at harvest. (4) Fertile, db•ha-1 (5) Barren, db•ha-1 (4) Total, db•ha-1. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Mean kernel No./plant 399, grain mass/ear 111 g, kernel No./m2 2700, thousand-kernel weight 278 g, shelling percentage 88%, effectivity 67% irrespective of the treatments. Table 3. Effect of N×Cu treatments on the air-dry yield of maize in various phenological phases, 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Cu rate, kg•ha-1. (2) N fertilisation, kg N•ha-1•év-1. (3) Mean. (4) LSD5%. A. Air-dry 4-6-leaf shoots, g. B. Air-dry roots of plants in the 4-6-leaf stage, g. C. Air-dry stalks, t•ha-1. D. Air-dry kernels, t•ha-1. E. Air-dry stalks + cobs + kernels, t•ha-1. Note: Cobs averaged 1 t•ha-1, shelling ratio 88%. Table 4. Effect of N fertilisation on the element content of maize in 1991 (cher-nozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) N rates, kg•ha-1•év-1. (2) Shoots N, %. (3) Roots N, %. (4) Leaf N, %. (5) Leaf element content, mg•kg-1 (6) Element content of the stalks at harvest, %. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Shoots and roots in the 4-6-leaf stage, leaves at the beginning of flowering. Table 5. Effect of Cu fertilization on the yield components of maize and the Cu con-tent of plant organs (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Cu rates, kg•ha-1. (2) Yield components at harvest. (3) Cu content, mg•kg-1. (4) Ker-nels. (5) Shoots. (6) Roots. (7) Leaves. (8) Stalks. a) Mean, b) LSD5%. Note: Mean 1000-kernel weight: 278 g. Table 6. Mean composition of maize in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime depos-its, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Shoots. (4) Roots. (5) Leaves. (6) Stalks. (7) Kernels. (8) In the 4-6-leaf stage. (9) At flowering. (10) At har-vest. Table 7. Mean element uptake of maize at harvest in 1991 (chernozem loam soil with lime deposits, Nagyhörcsök, Mezõföld). (1) Element symbol. (2) Units. (3) Stalks. (4) Kernels. (5) Together. (6) Specific content. Note: Element content of 1 t grain + the corresponding by-products.

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