The paper deals with a dispute that took place in the early 1930s between MANNINGER and DOYLE about the relationship between Newcastle disease (ND) and fowl plague (FP). Following the initial description and characterisation of ND and its differentiation from FP by DOYLE in 1927, MANNINGER published the results of his own studies on the immunbiological comparison of the NDV strain obtained from DOYLE and an FPV strain that derived from an outbreak in Tirol in 1925. As a result of serial passages of these viruses in chickens MANNINGER found that the two strains became indistinguishable as to their pathogenicity and immunological type. He drew the erroneus conclusion that ND was a less acute form of FP rather than an etiologically distinguishable disease. His views were influenced by the early descriptions of fowl pest (Geflügelpest) at around the turn of century because these had had references to symptoms such as upper respiratory and nervous signs that were later regarded characteristic for ND (DOYLE, 1927). DOYLE'S comparative studies in the late 1920s with NDV and contemporary FPV strains unequivocally demonstrated that ND(V) and FP(V) are distinct entities. On the other hand, his results did not preclude the possibility that ND had been present decades before because early viruses were probably not available for comparison at that time. Indeed, pathogenicity of NDV for pigeons first proposed as an ND-specific property by DOYLE (1927, 1935) were already mentioned in earlier publications. The most convincing of these reports is a doctoral thesis prepared by F. HALÁSZ at the Veterinary School in Budapest in 1912 that includes photographs of pigeons with nervous signs characteristic for ND. In this study pigeons were infected palanterally with infectious material of chickens derived from local outbreaks of fowl pest. This work proves that ND must have been present much earlier in Europe than the disease broke out in Newcastle-upon-Tyne as described by DOYLE (1927). It appears that MANNINGER was the first and for a long time the only scientist who advocated that ND was present prior to its first description in the late 1920s. Evolutionary thinking and results of phylogenetic studies of NDV strains support this notion.
|Translated title of the contribution||An old dispute about "fowl pest"|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 1998|
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