Introduction: Recent experiments and clinical studies indicate the contribution of thyroid hormones to prostate pathology. Aim: In our retrospective analyzis of university patient population, we evaluated the association between thyroid stimulatory hormone (TSH) and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Method: From the Laboratory Information System we retrieved the data of male patients between 40 and 75 years of age who had been subjected to simultaneous TSH and PSA measurements during the last 12 years (n = 7279). The association between logTSH and logPSA levels was tested with multiple regression analysis and adjusted for age. Results: Significant associations between logPSA and logTSH and age (r = 0.297 and 0.472, respectively) were detected. PSA levels were higher in patients with TSH below (n = 405) than in those with TSH within reference range (TSH 0,35–4,95 mU/ml) (n = 6698) (PSA level: 1.118 [0.639–2.338] vs. 0.920 [0.508–1.826] ng/ml, p<0.016). Based on estimates, a 10% decrease in TSH is associated with a 0.42% increase in PSA levels in our population. This corresponds to a 42% increase in PSA levels in the same patient if he would present with 0.2 mU/ml instead of 2.0 mU/ml TSH. Conclusion: The finding that hyperthyreosis might be associated with higher PSA levels indicates that PSA reference ranges would differ in hyperthyreotic and in euthyreotic patients. Probably the PSA clinical decision limits is also recommended to be modified according to the patient’s thyroid status.
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