The incidence of anal cancer has increased in recent decades, particularly among human immunodeficiency virus infected men who have sex with men. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia is a potential precursor lesion of anal cancer. Anal cytology is the primary screening test for anal intraeptithelial neoplasia. Aim: The authors aimed to analyze the results of anal cytology of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at the National Centre of STD, Department of Dermatology, Dermatooncology and Venereology, Semmelweis University. Method: 155 anal cytological examinations were performed in 140 patients between November 1, 2012 and August 31, 2014. Results: 44% of patients were found to have anal dysplasia, and only 1.6% of patients had high-grade lesions. This rate is lower as compared to published studies including larger number of patients. Conclusions: The study underlines the necessity of screening for anal lesions in the population at-risk.
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