Background. Hypertension is a recognized marker of poor prognosis in IgA nephropathy. Methods. The present study investigated the prevalence of white-coat hypertension, the diurnal rhythm of blood pressure (BP), the effectiveness of antihypertensive drug therapy, and the effect of the above on the progression of the kidney disease in IgA nephropathy. One hundred twenty-six IgA nephropathy patients were selected consecutively for 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Fifty-five patients were normotensive and 71 were treated hypertensives. Their antihypertensive drugs were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) alone or in combination with calcium-channel blockers (CCB). Results. The mean night-time BP of normotensives (108 ± 9/67 ± 6 mmHg) was significantly lower than their day-time BP (125 ± 8/82 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the mean day-time and night-time BP in hypertensive patients (125 ± 9/82 ± 7 mmHg vs 128 ± 10/85 ± 9 mmHg). The circadian variation of BP was preserved ('dippers') in 82% of the normotensive and 7% of the hypertensive patients (P < 0.001). There were 10 'white-coat hypertensives' among the patients classified as normotensives with ABPM (mean office blood pressure 149 ± 7/96 ± 8 mmHg, 24-h blood pressure 127 ± 6/83 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and 14 among treated hypertensives (mean office BP 152 ± 8/98 ± 6 mmHg, 24-h BP 130 ± 4/85 ± 8 mmHg, P < 0.05). There was no difference in mean day-time BP among normotensive and treated hypertensive patients (125 ± 8/81 ± 5 mmHg vs 128 ± 10/85 ± 9 mmHg). Hypertensives had significantly higher night-time BP (125 ± 9/85 ± 9 mmHg) than normotensives ( 108 ± 9/67 ± 6 mmHg, P < 0.001), There was no difference in serum creatinine levels among the different groups at the time of the ABPM. However, thirty-six ± 4.1 months after the ABPM, hypertensive patients (n = 52) had higher serum creatinine levels (124 ± 32 μmol/l) than at the time of the ABPM (101 ± 28 μmol/l). The serum creatinine of normotens ive patients (n = 43) did not change during the follow-up period. 'Non-dipper' normotensives (n = 10) had significantly higher serum creatinine levels at the end of the follow-up period than at its beginning (106 ± 17 μmol/l vs 89 ± 18 μmol/l, P < 0.05). There was no increase in serum creatinine of 'dipper' normotensives. The mean serum creatinine of 'white-coat hypertensives' was significantly higher at the end of the study period than at its beginning. Conclusions. There is no diurnal blood pressure variation in most of the hypertensive IgA nephropathy patients. ACEI and CCB treatment have better effect on day-time than night-time hypertension. The lack of the circadian rhythm and 'white-coat hypertension' seems to accelerate the progression of IgA nephropathy.
- Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
- Diurnal blood pressure rhythm
- IgA nephropathy
- Progression of renal disease
- White-coat hypertension
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