Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with diverse actions, including strong neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. The aim of our present review is to provide a summary of the different approaches how in vivo neuroprotective effects can be achieved, emphasizing the potential translational values for future therapeutic applications. In the central nervous system, PACAP has been shown to have in vivo protective effects in models of cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, Huntington chorea, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury and different retinal pathologies. PACAP passes through the bloodbrain barrier and therefore, systemic administration can affect the nervous system and lead to neuroprotective effects. This review summarizes results obtained in neuronal injury studies via local, such as intracerebral, intrathecal, intracerebroventricular, intravitreal and systemic treatments, such as intravenous, intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration of PACAP. A few other options are summarized, like intranasal and eye drops treatments, as well as difficulties and side effects of different treatments are also discussed.
- Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Drug Discovery