Affective temperaments in general population: A review and combined analysis from national studies

Gustavo H. Vázquez, Leonardo Tondo, Lorenzo Mazzarini, Xenia Gonda

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

46 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of affective temperaments in general non-clinical population in different countries Method: We performed a detailed search of published studies (one unpublished) investigating affective temperaments in non-clinical populations by administering the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) in its 110-items version. We have included a total of six studies published from different countries (Argentina, Germany, Hungary, Korea, Lebanon, and Portugal) and one unpublished with preliminary data from Spain. We analyzed the combined data from the collected studies. Results: We found significant gender differences, with men scoring higher in irritable and hyperthymic, and women in anxious, depressive and cyclothymic temperaments. Age had a significant effect in women with depressive temperament. Correlations among temperament scores have shown positive associations between depressive and anxious, and cyclothymic and irritable. Conclusions: There was a similarity in gender differences and the association between different affective temperaments. Our results indicate that affective temperaments show both universal and distinctive characteristics. Limitation: The sample populations in different countries were not homogeneous for age and socio-economic composition. In the Korean study of Kang et al. the version of the TEMPS was not validated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-22
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of affective disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2012


  • Affective temperament
  • Gender differences
  • General population
  • Nonclinical population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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