In the last few decades, proton-pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of the treatment of acid-related disorders. Despite their efficacy, these drugs are not without risks. Recently several articles have been published on their long-term adverse effects. Among these adverse effects, the higher risk of bone fractures, the vitamin B12 and magnesium deficiencies and the higher risk of Clostridium difficile infection may be relevant. As these drugs are prescribed more and more frequently all over the world, the knowledge of the long-term adverse effects is very important not only for the specialists but for the general practitioners as well. In this review, the authors discuss the recent findings in this field, emphasising that the long-term use of these drugs must be based on an adequate and strong indication.
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