Nowadays huge amounts of pharmaceuticals, among them ibuprofen (IBU), are consumed worldwide. After administration approximately 40% of the medicine and its metabolites are excreted. Moreover, in spite of the broad campaigns about the proper disposal of the unused or expired drugs, uncontrolled quantities land every day in the wastewater. Due to their low biodegradability the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not able to remove them completely from the effluent; therefore they are present in the environment in their initial form and as their metabolites (1-hydroxy-ibuprofen (1-OH-IBU), 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen (2-OH-IBU), 3-hydroxy-ibuprofen (3-OH-IBU), carboxy-ibuprofen (CA-IBU) and carboxy-hydratropic acid (CA-HA). Several studies investigate the occurrence of these compounds and IBU itself in WWTP influents and effluents, drinking and natural waters. The detected values are mainly in the 10-12 - 10-9 mol dm-3 range. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are effective methods to oxidize and mineralize IBU by using non-selective and highly reactive (mainly hydroxyl, •OH) radicals, which can be generated by vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation, high-energy ionizing radiation, photocatalysis, Fenton reaction, through the degradation of hydrogen peroxide or ozone. The efficiency of these processes depends on the rate constant of •OH with the contaminant molecule (in the case of IBU k = (7.4±1.2) × 109 mol-1 dm3 s-1). Combined AOP techniques like photo-Fenton, UV/VUV, UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 are also efficient in the degradation of IBU; in general the combined methods show higher elimination rates. This book chapter summarises the results obtained with various AOP techniques tested to eliminate IBU. The degradation kinetics, formation of degradation products, as well as their ecotoxicity is also discussed.
|Title of host publication||Ibuprofen|
|Subtitle of host publication||Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Uses and Adverse Effects|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||74|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2013|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)