Background: Biomarkers of inflammation and adiponectin are associated with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data are scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of biomarkers of subclinical inflammation and adiponectin with subsequent changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Methods: Data are based on up to 25,050 person-examinations for 8469 study participants of the Whitehall II cohort study. Measures of CAN included HR and several HRV indices. Associations between baseline serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and adiponectin and 5-year changes in HR and six HRV indices were estimated using mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), metabolic covariates and medication. A modifying effect of diabetes was tested. Results: Higher levels of IL-1Ra were associated with higher increases in HR. Additional associations with measures of HRV were observed for hsCRP, IL-6 and IL-1Ra, but these associations were explained by BMI and other confounders. Associations between adiponectin, HR and HRV differed depending on diabetes status. Higher adiponectin levels were associated with more pronounced decreases in HR and increases in three measures of HRV reflecting both sympathetic and vagal activity, but these findings were limited to individuals with type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: Higher IL-1Ra levels appeared as novel risk marker for increases in HR. Higher adiponectin levels were associated with a more favourable development of cardiovascular autonomic function in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of multiple confounders.
- Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
- Cardiovascular disease
- Heart rate
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine