Vasopressin (AVP) deficient homozygous Brattleboro rats exhibit severe osmotic challenges due to waterless chronic hypernatremia and hyperosmolality. We investigated the effect of xylazine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, on the activity of oxytocinergic (OXY) neurons in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of homozygous (di/di), heterozygous (di/+), and control (+/+) rats. Ninety minutes after saline (0.1 mL/100 g b.w., i.p.) or xylazine injection (10 mg/kg, i.p.) rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbital (50 mg/kg i.p.) and sacrificed by transcardial perfusion with fixative. Activity of OXY neurons was evidenced by nuclear Fos protein immunoreactivity. Fos/OXY colabelings were analyzed on 40-μm thick coronal sections using computerized light microscope. As expected, plasma osmolality and water intake revealed high heterogenity within the di/di group of rats. Fos expression in SON of di/di rats was correlated with osmolality of each rat. In saline-treated rats, maximum activation of Fos reached around 4% in +/+, 20% in di/+ rats, and as much as 60% in di/di rats. Xylazine activated in SON about 70% of OXY-ergic neurons in +/+, 60% in di/+ rats, and more than 80% in di/di rats. The present findings indicate that in spite of the high spontaneous activity of SON OXY-ergic neurons due to the AVP deficiency in di/di rats, many of the silent OXY-ergic neurons in the SON remained acceptable for α2-adrenoceptor stimulation.