Szerzett hajtóerôk. A társadalmi létforma születéséért és fejlôdéséért felelôs agykérgi mechanizmus.

Translated title of the contribution: Acquired drives. The cortical mechanism responsible to the emergence and development of social existence

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper is a brief interpretation of the theory (J. Knoll: The Brain and Its Self, Springer, 2005) the main message of which is that the appearance of the mammalian brain with the ability to acquire drives ensured the development of social life, and eventually led to the evolution of the human society. In the mammalian brain capable to acquire drives, untrained cortical neurons (Group 1) possess the potentiality to change their functional state in response to practice, training, or experience in three consecutive stages, namely, by getting involved in (a) an extinguishable conditioned reflex (ECR) (Group 2), (b) an inextinguishable conditioned reflex (ICR) (Group 3), or (c)an acquired drive (Group 4). The activity of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 and 4 is inseparable from conscious perception. In any moment of life self is the sum of those cortical neurons that have already changed their functional significance and belong to Group 3 or 4. Metaphorically, every human being is born with a telencephalon that resembles a book with over 100 billion empty pages (untrained, naive cortical neurons, Group 1), and with the capacity to inscribe as much as possible in this book throughout life. Whenever a drive is acquired, chains of ICRs are fixed, neurons responsible for emotions are also coupled to the integral whole, thus cognitive/volitional consciousness is necessarily inseparable from an affective state of consciousness. Cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 continuously synthesize their specific enhancer substance within their capacity. This means that even in the vigilant resting state (leisure), in the absence of a dominant drive, as well as in the non-vigilant resting state (sleeping), the cortical neurons representing the totality of the already fixed ICRs and acquired drives are permanently under the influence of their specific enhancer substance. Although the level of this permanent, undulating activation remains low, it is unpredictable as to when any group of cortical neurons will be influenced by enhancer substances on the level already inseparable from conscious perception. Thus, as the totality of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 works continuously on an unconscious level, there is a steadily operating, chaotic background noise in the human telencephalon. Even in the active state ("fight or flight" behavior, goal-seeking), when the actually dominant drive determines the rational goal to be reached, the noise is suppressed, but cannot cease to exist. But it never endangers the function of the actually dominant innate or acquired drive. From this situation it follows that the rational brain activity is necessarily amalgamated with an irrational brain activity and we live through every moment of our life experiencing the totality of order and chaos in our brain. Human society the maintenance of which has always required the proper manipulation of the brain of its members still finds itself in a state of development. It seeks its final equilibrium: namely, that state in which behavioral modification induced by the home/school/society triad will be based, from birth until death, on the exact knowledge of the natural laws that keep the brain and its self going. In this way, members of the community will understand that simultaneity of order and chaos in their brain is the physiological reality that determines human activity, and will consciously try to find the acquired drives that optimally fit their natural endowments. For the time being those who have been lucky enough to acquire the best fitting drives in due time, in the early uphill period of life, have had fair chances for success and happiness. In contrast, those who for any reason have missed this opportunity will remain frustrated and look for 'ersatz'. It seems reasonable to conclude that order and chaos are of equal importance in our brain. Without the ability to adapt ourselves to the concrete (science), we would not be able to survive; without the ability which allows detachment from the concrete and explorations in the infinite (art), life would not be worth living. Thus, the human society, this most sophisticated form of organized life on earth is still in trial and error phase of its development. It seeks to outgrow the myth-directed era of its history and come to its final state, the reason-directed human society.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)151-166
Number of pages16
JournalNeuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Volume9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007

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Neurons
Brain
Aptitude
Telencephalon
Classical Conditioning
Ego
Consciousness
Noise
Drive
Happiness
Leisure Activities
Financial Management
Art
Human Activities
Ethics
Emotions
History
Maintenance
Parturition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

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title = "Szerzett hajt{\'o}er{\^o}k. A t{\'a}rsadalmi l{\'e}tforma sz{\"u}let{\'e}s{\'e}{\'e}rt {\'e}s fejl{\^o}d{\'e}s{\'e}{\'e}rt felel{\^o}s agyk{\'e}rgi mechanizmus.",
abstract = "This paper is a brief interpretation of the theory (J. Knoll: The Brain and Its Self, Springer, 2005) the main message of which is that the appearance of the mammalian brain with the ability to acquire drives ensured the development of social life, and eventually led to the evolution of the human society. In the mammalian brain capable to acquire drives, untrained cortical neurons (Group 1) possess the potentiality to change their functional state in response to practice, training, or experience in three consecutive stages, namely, by getting involved in (a) an extinguishable conditioned reflex (ECR) (Group 2), (b) an inextinguishable conditioned reflex (ICR) (Group 3), or (c)an acquired drive (Group 4). The activity of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 and 4 is inseparable from conscious perception. In any moment of life self is the sum of those cortical neurons that have already changed their functional significance and belong to Group 3 or 4. Metaphorically, every human being is born with a telencephalon that resembles a book with over 100 billion empty pages (untrained, naive cortical neurons, Group 1), and with the capacity to inscribe as much as possible in this book throughout life. Whenever a drive is acquired, chains of ICRs are fixed, neurons responsible for emotions are also coupled to the integral whole, thus cognitive/volitional consciousness is necessarily inseparable from an affective state of consciousness. Cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 continuously synthesize their specific enhancer substance within their capacity. This means that even in the vigilant resting state (leisure), in the absence of a dominant drive, as well as in the non-vigilant resting state (sleeping), the cortical neurons representing the totality of the already fixed ICRs and acquired drives are permanently under the influence of their specific enhancer substance. Although the level of this permanent, undulating activation remains low, it is unpredictable as to when any group of cortical neurons will be influenced by enhancer substances on the level already inseparable from conscious perception. Thus, as the totality of the cortical neurons belonging to Group 3 or 4 works continuously on an unconscious level, there is a steadily operating, chaotic background noise in the human telencephalon. Even in the active state ({"}fight or flight{"} behavior, goal-seeking), when the actually dominant drive determines the rational goal to be reached, the noise is suppressed, but cannot cease to exist. But it never endangers the function of the actually dominant innate or acquired drive. From this situation it follows that the rational brain activity is necessarily amalgamated with an irrational brain activity and we live through every moment of our life experiencing the totality of order and chaos in our brain. Human society the maintenance of which has always required the proper manipulation of the brain of its members still finds itself in a state of development. It seeks its final equilibrium: namely, that state in which behavioral modification induced by the home/school/society triad will be based, from birth until death, on the exact knowledge of the natural laws that keep the brain and its self going. In this way, members of the community will understand that simultaneity of order and chaos in their brain is the physiological reality that determines human activity, and will consciously try to find the acquired drives that optimally fit their natural endowments. For the time being those who have been lucky enough to acquire the best fitting drives in due time, in the early uphill period of life, have had fair chances for success and happiness. In contrast, those who for any reason have missed this opportunity will remain frustrated and look for 'ersatz'. It seems reasonable to conclude that order and chaos are of equal importance in our brain. Without the ability to adapt ourselves to the concrete (science), we would not be able to survive; without the ability which allows detachment from the concrete and explorations in the infinite (art), life would not be worth living. Thus, the human society, this most sophisticated form of organized life on earth is still in trial and error phase of its development. It seeks to outgrow the myth-directed era of its history and come to its final state, the reason-directed human society.",
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