Accuracy of anatomical landmark placement methods for gait analysis

Kristóf Rácz, Gergely Nagymáté, Tamás Kovács, Tamás Bodzay, R. Kiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)


A key step in gait analysis is the denotation of anatomical landmarks, often called calibration. Before, no standardised framework existed for determining and comparing the accuracy of this procedure. The goal of the present study was to develop suitable standards and utilize these to examine how a set of changes to a calibration protocol affects accuracy. Standardised conditions were established for the measurement of the quality of the denotation process. Seven orthopaedic doctors performed calibrations on six healthy male participants aged 30±2.5 years. For each set of measurements three out of seven randomly selected doctors each performed a calibration of 24 anatomical landmarks on a subject, for a total of 10 independent sets. The calibration procedure featured a redesigned calibration wand, and further clarifications of locations of the anatomical landmarks compared to the previous protocol. Newly defined metrics of 3D error and 3D deviation were used to examine the change in accuracy compared to the old protocol. Results showed that the accuracy of calibrations between multiple examiners has improved by approximately 23%. However, calibrations made by a single examiner are still more accurate with smaller deviations. The standardised conditions and metrics provide a solid foundation for comparing the accuracy of calibration methods. A general increase of accuracy can be observed from updating the calibration protocol, but the personal interpretation of anatomical landmark locations still plays a major role, making calibration performed by different examiners inconsistent.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-10
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Mechanics and Control
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018



  • Accuracy
  • Calibration
  • Comparability
  • Motion analysis
  • Standard

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computational Mechanics

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