A unified equation for the viscosity of pure liquid metals

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)


The following unified equation has been elaborated in the present paper, to describe the viscosity of all liquid metals as a function of temperature: ηi = A·Mi1/2/Vi 2/3·T1/2·exp(B·Tm,i/T) with ηi, Mi, Vi, Tm,i being the dynamic viscosity, atomic mass, molar volume and melting point of the given metal i, and T is temperature. The above equation was tested on 101 measured points of 15 selected liquid metals, and the average values of the generally valid parameters were found as: A = (1.80 ± 0.39) · 10 -8 (J/Kmol1/3)1/2, B = 2.34 ± 0.20. Based on these parameters, the temperature dependence of viscosity was estimated for 32 liquid metals. The above equation was derived by (i) combining Andrade's equation with the activation energy concept, and (ii) by combining Andrade's equation with the free volume concept. It is shown, that the activation energy and the free volume concepts have identical roots and lead to identical results. The above equation is shown to be valid for liquid semi-metals (Si, Ge, Sb, Bi), if their actual melting points are replaced by their corrected melting points, corresponding to (unstable) metallic solid crystals. The ratio of viscosity to surface tension of pure liquid metals is discussed, as well.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24-31
Number of pages8
JournalZeitschrift fuer Metallkunde/Materials Research and Advanced Techniques
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005


  • Activation energy
  • Free Volume
  • Liquid metals
  • Modelling
  • Temperature dependence
  • Viscosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'A unified equation for the viscosity of pure liquid metals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this