A surprising mechanism lacking the Ni(0) state during the Ni(II)-catalyzed P-C cross-coupling reaction performed in the absence of a reducing agent - An experimental and a theoretical study

Réka Henyecz, Zoltán Mucsi, György Keglevich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The Hirao reaction, i.e. the P-C coupling between a bromoarene and a >P(O)H reagent performed in most cases in the presence of a Pd(0) complex incorporating a P-ligand may also be carried out applying a Ni(II) catalyst precursor with or without Zn or Mg as the reducing agent. The Ni catalysts may include P- or N-ligands. B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)//PCM(MeCN) quantum chemical calculations suggested that the mechanism of the NiX2 catalyzed (X=Cl or Br) P-C couplings performed in the absence of a reducing agent, and in the excess of the >P(O)H reagent serving as the P-ligand (via its tautomeric >POH form) is completely different from that of the Pd(OAc)2 promoted version, as no reduction of the Ni(II) occurs. In the two variations mentioned, the active catalyst is the dehydrobrominated species derived from primary complex [(HO)Y2P]2Ni(II)Br2, and the [(HO)Y2P]2Pd(0) complex itself, respectively. Both species undergo temporary oxidation (to "Ni(IV)" and "Pd(II)", respectively) in the catalytic cycle. During the catalysis with "P2Ni(II)X2", one of the P-ligands serves the >P(O)H function of the ArP(O)H < product. The consequence of this difference is that in the Ni(II)-catalyzed case, somewhat less >P(O)H-species is needed than in the Pd(0)-promoted instance. Applying 10 % of the Pd(OAc)2 or NiX2 precursor, the optimum quantity of the P-reagent is 1.3 equivalent and, in the first approach, 1.1 equivalent, respectively. Preparative experiments justified the new mechanism explored. The ligation of Ni(II) was also investigated by theoretical calculations. It was proved that the bis-complexation is the most favorable energetically as compared to the mono-, tri- and tetra-ligation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-503
Number of pages11
JournalPure and Applied Chemistry
Volume92
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2020

Keywords

  • ICPC-22
  • P-ligands
  • cross coupling
  • microwave heating
  • nickel(II) catalyst
  • quantum chemistry
  • reaction mechanisms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

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