The microwave cavity perturbation method is often used to determine material parameters (electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) at high frequencies, and it relies on the measurement of the resonator parameters. We present a method to determine the Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators which is conceptually simple but provides a sensitivity for these parameters which overcomes those of existing methods by an order of magnitude. The microwave resonator is placed in a feedback resonator setup, where the output of an amplifier is connected to its own input with the resonator as a bandpass filter. After reaching steady-state oscillation, the feedback circuit is disrupted by a fast microwave switch, and the transient signal, which emanates from the resonator, is detected using down-conversion. The Fourier transform of the resulting time-dependent signal yields directly the resonance profile of the resonator. Albeit the method being highly accurate, this comes with a conceptual simplicity, ease of implementation, and lower circuit cost. We compare existing methods for this type of measurement to explain the sensitivity of the present technique, and we also make a prediction for the ultimate accuracy for the resonator Q and f0 determination.
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