A Four-Factor Model of Work Addiction: The Development of the Work Addiction Risk Test Revised

R. Urbán, Bernadette Kun, Tamás Mózes, Péter Soltész, Borbála Paksi, J. Farkas, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Gábor Orosz, Anikó Maráz, Katalin Felvinczi, Mark D. Griffiths, Z. Demetrovics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Background: Work has a crucial role in individuals' productivity, social life, and psychological well-being. Despite various definitions of work addiction in the literature, the number of psychometrically reliable instruments is limited. Objectives: The aim of this study was to psychometrically test and revise the factor structure of the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), one of the most widely used instruments assessing work addiction. Method: The full version of the WART [Robinson, Post, & Khakee, 1992] was assessed using a nationally representative sample of Hungary (n = 2,710). To increase validity, the analyses were conducted among individuals who worked at least 40 h a week (n = 1,286, 43% women, mean age = 38.9 years, SD = 10.8). Results: Using confirmatory factor analysis, the originally proposed 4- and 5-factor solutions did not have adequate model fit indices. Thus, the sample was randomly divided into 2 subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis conducted in the first half of the sample supported a 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in the other half of the sample. The Work Addiction Risk Test Revised (WART-R) comprises 17 items and 4 factors (i.e., Overcommitment, Impatience, Hard-working, and Salience). Using a latent class analysis, a cutoff score (51 points out of 68) for the high risk of work addiction was determined. Almost one in 10 participants (9.3%) were identified as being symptomatic of work addiction, and these individuals also reported an elevated level of mental distress and hostility. Conclusions: As a conclusion, the WART-R is suitable to be used as an indicator of work addiction based on clinically relevant symptom dimensions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-159
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Addiction Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2019



  • Scale development
  • Work addiction
  • Work Addiction Risk Test
  • Work Addiction Risk Test Revised
  • Workaholism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Health(social science)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Urbán, R., Kun, B., Mózes, T., Soltész, P., Paksi, B., Farkas, J., Kökönyei, G., Orosz, G., Maráz, A., Felvinczi, K., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2019). A Four-Factor Model of Work Addiction: The Development of the Work Addiction Risk Test Revised. European Addiction Research, 25(3), 145-159. https://doi.org/10.1159/000499672