A Case-Control Study of Gallbladder Cancer in Hungary

Hiroto Nakadaira, Istvan Lang, Zoltan Szentirmay, Erika Hitre, Miklos Kaster, Masaharu Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)


Our previous study indicated an association of chili pepper consumption with gallbladder cancer (GBC) in the presence of gallstones (GS) in Chile. We investigated whether or not a similar association was present in Hungary, where mortality from GBC is high and chili peppers are frequently consumed. In a case-control study, we compared 41 female GBC patients with GS and 30 gender and GS-matched hospital controls. Trained staff interviewed all subjects to determine socioeconomic status, family history, past history and life style habits (smoking, alcohol intake, dietary habits and elimination habits). Because mean ages differed significantly between the case and control groups, age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. A shorter education period (< 10 years / ≥16 years) was indicated to be a risk factor (age-adjusted OR (95%CI): 3.2 (1.2-8.7)). In addition, the intake of Hungarian hot pepper (yes / no) was found to be significantly higher in the GBC cases than in controls (age-adjusted OR (95%CI): 8.4 (2.3-30.4)). There were no differences between the case and control groups for other variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis retained only Hungarian hot pepper consumption as a significant independent risk factor for GBC. Its age-adjusted OR was 16.2 (95%CI: 2.1-126.2), while there were no differences associated with low education, frequent consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, low socioeconomic status or smoking. Hungarian hot pepper consumption was identified as a risk factor forGBC by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)833-836
Number of pages4
JournalAsian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2009


  • Case-control study
  • Epidemiology
  • Gallbladder cancer
  • Gallstones
  • Hungarian hot pepper

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Cancer Research

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